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Effects of rumen-protected choline chloride on production performance and serum biochemical paramete
Time10.9.2011  Website's Browsing Times 5869BLack
 

XU Guozhong1  YE Junan1  CHEN Weijian  LIU Jianxin  YU Yueying2

(1. Dairy Science Institute of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310029 2. Hangzhou Jinjiang Dairy Farm, Hangzhou, 310016)

Abstract: This study has investigated the effects of rumen-protected choline chloride on production performance and serum biochemical parameters of early lactating dairy cows. Fourteen Chinese Holstein cows were selected. The results showed that total milk production of experimental group was higher than that of the control group there was no significant difference in milk components between the two groups (P>0.05). The serum glucose content of experimental group was maintained at a high level, and was especially higher than the control 1 wk after calving (P<0.01). The glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) content of experimental group was a little higher than that of the control, while glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) was basically the same between the two (P>0.05). The content of NEFA (Nonesterified fatty acids), triglyceride, cholesterol and VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) was significantly higher than that of the control, and triglyceride and VLDL content was extremely different between the two groups while calving (P<0.01).

Key words: animal husbandry rumen-protected choline chloride milk production milk component dairy cows

 

       Low dry matter intake and negative energy balance can often be seen among dairy cows during peripatum period. It would influence on the reproductive performance and cause diseases to cow, which would result in great losses to dairy industry. Some studies showed that protected choline chloride can affect the production performance of transition cows [1]. Therefore this study was conducted to investigate the effects of adding rumen-protected choline chloride in diet on production performance and metabolism of early lactating dairy cows.

1  Materials and methods

1.1  Selection and grouping of dairy cows

       Fourteen healthy Holstein cows were selected and paired on the basis of similarity in parity, expected calving date, male parent and milk production in last parity, and allocated into experimental group and control group randomly. The average parity of the two groups was 1.70.49, and the average milk production in last parity of experimental group and control group was 83101035 kg and 8356957 kg, respectively.

1.2  Diet compositions and feeding management

       The basal diet was divided into dry milk diet and lactation diet. Dry milk diet consisted of concentrate 4.5 kg/d and wild hay 5.0 kg/d. Lactation diet consisted of concentrate 7.0 kg/d, nutritive supplements 3.5 kg/d, beet pulp 2.0 kg/d, distillers 2.5 kg/d, cabbage 8.0kg/d, corn silage 8.0 kg/d, alfalfa hay 2.0 kg/d and Chinese wildrye 3.0 kg/d. The control group was fed the basal diet, and experimental group was fed the basal diet supplementing with 20 g/d*head of rumen-protected choline chloride. The rumen-protected choline chloride was coated with microcapsule and was provided by Hangzhou King Techina Feed Co., Ltd. The adjustment period was 10 d and the trial period was 28 d, that is from 7 d before expected calving date to 21 d after calving. Milk for 3 times each day (morning, noon and evening) through piping mechanical milker. Cows were housed and free to water.

1.3  Determination of indexes

1.3.1  Serum biochemical parameters

       Draw blood from caudal vein at 1 wk before calving, the day of calving and 1, 2, 3 wk after calving. Determine the content of serum glucose, GOT, GPT, NEFA, total cholesterol, triglyceride and VLDL.

1.3.2  Determination of milk performance

       Record the milk production of all cows at the day of calving and 1, 2, 3 wk after calving. Milk samples were sent to Hangzhou Milk Detection Station and to detect the content of milk fat, milk protein and lactose (mix the milk from morning, noon and evening, and take approximately 15 mL samples).

1.4  Statistic analysis

       Data was analyzed through One-way Analysis of Variance. Use LSR method to test the significance.

2  Results and analysis

2.1  Effects of adding rumen-protected choline chloride on milk performance

      From Table 1 we can see that there was a same rising trend between the control and experimental group. Compare with the control, the total milk production of experimental group was increased by 8.58% the maximum difference occurred when calving that experimental group was 22.7% higher than the control. With the processing of lactating, the difference was reduced the experimental group was 6.9%, 1.1% and 5.2% higher than that of the control at 1, 2 and 3 wk after calving. The milk fat and milk protein content of the two groups were slowly decreasing while generally, the milk fat and milk protein content of experimental group was a little higher than that of the control the lactose content was slowing increasing while the experimental group was a little higher than the control. The results indicated that adding rumen-protected choline chloride could improve the production performance to some extent of early lactating dairy cows. Pinotti et al. [2] reported that rumen-protected choline chloride could improve the production performance of early lactating dairy cows, and alleviate negative energy balance after calving. Erdman et al. [1] added 0.16%-0.23% of rumen-protected choline chloride in diet of early lactating dairy cows, and found that milk production and FCM production was increased by 1-2.2 kg/d (i.e. 3%-6%) and 1.7-2.4 kg/d (i.e. 5%-7%) respectively compared with the control, while milk fat content had no obvious changes. Our results were similar to studies mentioned above. However, there were different results of other researchers, who found that adding rumen-protected choline chloride had no significant effects on milk production from late pregnancy to lactation [3-4].

Table 1  Effects of adding rumen-protected choline chloride on production performance of early lactating dairy cows

Items

Treatments

Sample no./head

At calving

1 wk after calving

2 wk after calving

3 wk after calving

Milk production/kg

Experimental group

7

25.43.0

24.74.2

27.13.1

28.24.2

 

Control group

7

20.73.5

23.1 4.2

26. 83. 8

26.8 3.8

Milk protein content/%

Experimental group

7

3.820.38

3.450.54

2.970.33

2.750.38

 

Control group

7

3.760.59

3.380.42

2.930.29

2.490.16

Milk fat content/%

Experimental group

7

6.431.84

5.840.79

5.710.95

5.010.82

 

Control group

7

6.281.50

6.560.65

5.350.65

4.800.64

Lactose content/%

Experimental group

7

4.480.20

4.580.26

4.620.14

4.600.09

 

Control group

7

4.590.09

4.700.04

4.590.27

4.660.08

2.2  Effects of adding rumen-protected choline chloride on serum biochemical parameters

       From Table 2 we can see that serum glucose content of experimental group was maintained at a high level, and was significantly higher than that of the control especially at 1 wk after calving (P<0.01). Compared with the control, GOT content was a little higher while GPT content was basically the same (P>0.05) in experimental group. The content of NEFA, triglyceride, cholesterol, and VLDL was significantly lower than the control, and triglyceride and VLDL was extremely lower than the control when at calving (P<0.01). The results indicated that adding rumen-protected choline chloride could improve the metabolism of fat, protein and sugar of dairy cows.

Table 2  Effects of adding rumen-protected choline chloride on serum biochemical parameters of early lactating dairy cows

Parameters

Treatments

Sample no./head

At calving

1 wk after calving

2 wk after calving

3 wk after calving

Treatments

Serum glucose/mmol*L-1

Experimental group

7

3. 590. 58

3.800.51

3. 300. 56A

3. 590. 65

3. 430. 68

 

Control group

7

3.640.44

3.770.66

2.730.36B

2.970.61

3.030.61

GPT/U*L-1

Experimental group

7

16.83.5

15.74.0

18.3 4.2

18.24.8

14.72.6

 

Control group

7

16.71.5

16.02.8

19.3 3.4

18.13.8

18.14.1

GOT/U*L-1

Experimental group

7

87.35.6

107.119.5

156.4 24.6

139.318.1

96.0 27.6

 

Control group

7

60.312.6

88.113.9

132.9 33.9

109.015.7

94.921.9

Triglyceride/mmol*L-1

Experimental group

7

0.220.13

0.15 0.03A

0.11 0.01

0.100.02

0.080.06

 

Control group

7

0.380.06

0.110.03

0.11 0.03

0.110.02

0.130.07

Cholesterol/mmol*L-1

Experimental group

7

2.110.61

1.900.45

1.87 0.51

2.420.30

3.210.82

 

Control group

7

2.450.06

2.040.51

2.220.77

2.920.21

3.510.90

VLDL/mmol*L-1

Experimental group

7

0.0440.012

0.0390.004A

0.0230.002

0.012 0.007

0.0210.009

 

Control group

7

0.0760.012

0.0230.007B

0.0210.005

0.021 0.004

0.0260.014

NEFA/mmol*L-1

Experimental group

7

840.7211.1

1073.2234.0

869.095.5

794.4 250.7

627.8240.8

 

Control group

7

864.8200.2

1197.1239.7

590.7211.8

675.2 135.7

401.3151.6

Note: Values with different superscript capital letters mean significant difference (P<0.01).

       In early lactation period, dry matter intake of dairy cows was decreased, and energy and protein was of negative balance to most cows. Large amount of fatty acids was forced to use to meet the lactation requirements. This made the body fat, protein and sugar metabolism disordered. Recent studies showed that the needs of anti-fatty liver substance (choline) were high for dairy cows, especially for high-yield cows (especially in early lactation). Choline is not only an essential nutrient, but also a limited nutrient to maintain high-yield. Piepenbrink et al. [4] found that fatty acids metabolism in liver was more sensitive to the supply of rumen-protected choline. Hartwell et al. [5] found that milk responses to supplemental rumen-protected choline chloride may be affected by the supplemental level of protein.

       Since negative energy balance can often be seen in dairy cows, the effects of adding rumen-protected choline chloride are of diversity. It may improve production performance, or may improve the metabolism of fat, protein and sugar, or both, but there is an also negative effect. It may be attributed to the roughage to concentrate ratio, supplemental form of choline and protein level in diet [6]. In our study the two effects mentioned above are positive, while the optimal supplemental level of rumen-protected choline chloride still needs further research.

3  Conclusion

       Adding rumen-protected choline chloride can improve the production performance of early lactating dairy cows, and improve the metabolism of fat, protein and sugar. It has a broad application prospect in production of high-yield dairy cows.

 

Acknowledgement: Great thanks to the assistant of Chief of Jinjiang Dairy Farm, HE Zemin and staffs!

 

Reference

[1] Erdman R A, Sharma B K. Effect of dietary rumen-protected choline in lactating dairy cows[J]. J Dairy Sci, 1991, 74:1641-1647.

[2] Pinotti, Luciano, Antonella B, et al. Choline for dairy cows[J]. Feed Intern, 2001, 8:20-24.

[3] Dicons tanzo A, Spain J N. Effect of rumen protected choline of methionine on lactational performance and blood metabolities of periparturient Holsteins[J]. J Dairy Sci, 1995, 78(Suppl.l):188(Abstr.).

[4] Piepenbrink M SOver ton T R. Liver metabolism and production of cows fed increasing amounts of rumen-protected choline during the peripar turient period[J]. J Dairy Sci, 2003, 86:1722-1733.

[5] Har twell J R, Cecava M J, Donkin S S. Impact of dietary rumen undergradable protein and rumen-protected choline on intake, peripartum liver triacylglyceride, plasma metabolites, and milk production in transi tion dairy cows[J]. J Dairy Sci, 2000, 83:2907-2917.

[6] Sharma B K, Erdman R A. Effect of high amounts of dietary choline supplementation on duodenal choline flow and production responses of dairy cows[J]. J Dairy Sci, 1988, 71:2670-2676.