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The research report of stability of coated sodium butyrate
Time:1.28.2011  Website's Browsing Times :3732 〖BLack
 

The research report of stability of coated sodium butyrate

Guoshun Chen1  Zhengfei Xu1  Min Zhao2  

1 Gansu Agricultural University, Institute of Animal Science and Technology, Gansu Lanzhou, 730070

2 National Engineering Laboratory for Biological Feed Security and Contamination Control Biological Coating Engineering Pilot Plant Test Base, Zhejiang Hangzhou,311107

Abstract: The objective of this study is to research the stability of sodium butyrate in feedstuff.The sodium butyrate with three types of coated, common and granule was produced at three different feed mills and sampled and determined the content. The results showed that the retention rate of common sodium butyrate was 7.35% after through carrier difference, mixing, granulating, stomach and digestive tract forepart. The retention rates of granule and coated sodium butyrate (the content of sodium butyrate is 30%) were 17.04% and 72.66% respectively. Therefore, the stability of coated sodium butyrate is obviously higher than common and granule sodium butyrate.

Key words: sodium butyrate, coated, stability

 

   The short chain fatty acids has kinds of functions in vivo animal, the butyrate plays major role. Due to the volatility of butyrate, added into the feed directly, the effect can’t guarantee, therefore, now generally used to the sodium butyrate. The sodium butyrate was the main energy source of intestinal mucosal epithelial cells proliferation, promoted intestinal mucosal growing development, enhanced mucosal permeability, thereby, enhanced functions of digestion and absorption of small intestine. The sodium butyrate repaired the impaired colonic epithelial cells, regulated water-salt balance, reduced diarrhea, in practical application, it has good effects. However, sodium butyrate with special odorous, easy moisture absorption and bad fluidity had disadvantage in processing, transportation and use, therefore, disadvantage of using wide. To people more worried, the sodium butyrate will be lose by storage, mixing, granule, difference ration formulation, temperature and moisture, at the same time, the effects of sodium butyrate will be decreased and some instability raw materials will be lost. The object of this study was coated sodium butyrate, common sodium butyrate and granule sodium butyrate, in order to research the loss rate of it’s during processing technic and provide theory.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Experimental material

   Coated sodium butyrate and common sodium butyrate were supplied by Hangzhou King Techina Feed Co., Ltd. The trade name of coated sodium butyrate is CM3000, the content of sodium butyrate is 30%. The contents of granule and common sodium butyrate are 70% and 90% respectively.

Experimental location

   The pilot production of feed was completed by three feed companies.

(1. Jiuquan Tianhe Feed Co., Ltd.  2. Baiyin Yellow River Feed Co., Ltd.  3. Lanzhou Fuchang Feed Co., Ltd.)

   The actual contents of sodium butyrate in different production chain were determined. The utilizations of sodium butyrate in stomach and small intestine were determined by dissolution analyzer at the key laboratory of Gansu Agriculture University.

Detection method

1. Reagents

   Glacial acetic acid (AR), acetic anhydride(AR), crystal violet indicator(crystal violet 0.5g, glacial acetic acid 100ml), perchloric acid standard solution(0.1mol/L)

2. Apparatus

   Electronic balance, burette

3. Content of sodium butyrate determination

   Accurately weighed 0.1g sodium butyrate, glacial acetic acid 20lml mixed with acetic anhydride 5ml, after complete dissolution, titrated with perchloric acid standard solution until the solution showed green.

Formula:

 

 

V: the volume of sample consumed perchloric acid standard solution (ml)

V0: the volume of blank test consumed perchloric acid standard solution (ml)

C: the actual concentration of perchloric acid standard solution (mol/L)

M: the sample quality

0.11010: the comparative with 1.00ml perchloric acid standard solution (CHClO4=0.1mol/L), the gram represents quality of sodium butyrate.

Composition and nutritive level of basal diet

    The ration formulation refer to NRC (1998) feeding standard for sucking pig. The composition and nutritive level of basal diet was presented in table 1.

Table 1 composition and nutritive level of basal diet

Compound feed formulation for sucking pig

1% premix formulation for sucking pig

Raw material of feed

Content (kg/t)

Raw material of premix

Content (%)

Extruded maize

250.0

Compound vitamin VM111

3.0

Sieving maize

352.0

Organic minerals

20.0

Extruded soybean

100.0

CM3000

2.0

Shelling soybean (46%)

120.0

CuSO4

5.0

Import fish meal

50.0

Thr

12.0

Whey powder (3%)

50.0

Met

8.0

Sucrose

20.0

Antioxidant

4.0

Soybean oil

16.0

Colistin

5.0

Lys (98%)

3.0

Narasin

3.0

CaHPO4

14.0

Carrier- rice hull powder

38.0

ZnO

3.0

Total

100

Stone powder

12.0

 

 

Sucking pig premix

10.0

 

 

Total

1000

 

 

 

RESULTS

1. The effect of moisture on sodium butyrate was presented in table 2.

Table 2 the effect of different moisture on surplus and retention rate of different types of sodium butyrate

 

10% moisture

12% moisture

14% moisture

15% moisture

Type of sodium butyrate

Retention rate 

(%)

Loss rate

(%)

Retention rate

(%)

Loss rate

(%)

Retention rate

(%)

Loss rate

(%)

Retention rate

(%)

Loss rate

(%)

common

92

8

90

10

87

13

68

32

granule

93

7

92

8

88

12

72

28

coated

99

1

99

1

98

2

98

2

   The table 2 showed that the loss rates of common sodium butyrate were 10% and 32% respectively when the feed moistures were 12% and 15%, and the loss rate increased with the increase of moisture. When the feed moistures were 12% and 15%, the loss rates of granule sodium butyrate were 8% and 28% respectively and it increased with the increase of moisture. When the feed moistures were 12% and 15%, the loss rates of coated sodium butyrate were 1% and 2% respectively and the loss rates were very small with the increase of moisture. From the table 2 we knew that the effect of moisture on coated sodium butyrate less than the granule and common sodium butyrate because coated sodium butyrate was coated by fat and absorbed by high temperature expansion core material.

2. The effect of premix carrier on sodium butyrate.

Figure 1 the retention rate of effect of premix carrier on sodium butyrate

   From the figure 1 we knew that after using different carrier, the loss rates of common and granule sodium butyrate were 3.8%-11% and 3.1%-7.5% respectively, but the loss rate of coated sodium butyrate was simply 0.4%-1%. This indicated the outer fat of coated sodium butyrate was insensitive to carrier.

3. The effect of mixture material on sodium butyrate.

Figure 2 the effect of mixture material on sodium butyrate

   From the figure 2 we knew that after mixing and storage, the loss rates of common and granule sodium butyrate were 4.9%-11% and 3.8%-15.4% respectively. The highest loss rate of coated sodium butyrate was simply 1.1%. Thus it can be seen that the mixture material had a little effect on coated sodium butyrate.

4. The effect of granulation process on different types of sodium butyrate. The results were presented in table 3 and figure 3.

Table 3 granulation and modulation parameter

Granulation parameter

Modulation parameter

Granulation

Bore diameter

(mm)

Effective length to bore diameter ratio

Length granule (mm)

Vapour pressure

(Mpa)

Modulation feed

 (r/m)

Modulation temperature (℃)

Granulation current (A)

3

11

3~8

0.2-0.4Mpa

280-350

78-85

150-170

Figure 3 the retention rate of different types of sodium butyrate after granulating process

   The figure 3 showed that the loss rates of common, granule and coated sodium butyrate after granulating process were 68.73%, 39.7% and 10.4% respectively. The loss rate of coated sodium butyrate has a little change with the increase of temperature, pressure and condensate water. The results showed that the granulating process had a great influence in different types of sodium butyrate, compared with common and granule sodium butyrate, the loss rate of coated sodium butyrate has relatively lower effect.

5. The retention rate of different types of sodium butyrate in stomach.

   The retention rate and loss rate of different types of sodium butyrate were determined by the dissolution analyzer when the sodium butyrate passed through the simulate stomach environment of piglet and broiler respectively. The result was presented in table 3.

Table 4 the loss rate and retention rate of different types of sodium butyrate in stomach of weaning piglet and broiler

 

Stomach environment of weaning piglet

Stomach environment of broiler

Type of sodium butyrate

Retention rate

(%)

Loss rate

(%)

Retention rate

(%)

Loss rate

(%)

common

54.2

45.8

65.4

34.6

granule

53.4

46.6

66.2

33.8

coated

98.4

1.6

97.9

2.1

   The table 4 showed that after passing through stomach environment of weaning and broiler, the loss rates of common sodium butyrate were 45.8% and 34.6%, the loss rates of granule sodium butyrate were 46.6% and 33.8% respectively, but the loss rates of coated sodium butyrate were 1.6% and 2.1%. The results showed that the loss rate of coated sodium butyrate much less than of common and granule sodium butyrate when the sodium butyrate passed through simulate stomach environment of piglet and broiler.

6. The retention rate of different types of sodium butyrate in forepart of small intestine. The result was presented figure 4.

Figure 4 the retention rate of different types of sodium butyrate in forepart of small intestine

    The figure 4 showed that the retention rates of coated sodium butyrate passed through stomach environment of weaning piglet and broiler were 88.4% and 86.7% respectively, the retention rate of common sodium butyrate was 75.8% and 76.7% respectively, the retention rate of granule sodium butyrate was 70.2% and 72.3% respectively. The retention rate of coated sodium butyrate was obvious higher than other types of sodium butyrate.

DISCUSSION

   The results showed that the retention rate of common sodium butyrate (the content of sodium butyrate is 90%) was 7.35% after through moisture (≤12%), carrier difference (CaCO3 is carrier), mixing (ration with high zinc ), granulating, stomach and digestive tract forepart (piglet). The retention rates of granule sodium butyrate (the content of sodium butyrate is 70%) and coated sodium butyrate (the content of sodium butyrate is 30%) were 17.04% and 72.66% respectively.

   The sodium butyrate with volatile was absorbed quickly in gastrointestinal tract forepart under unprotected condition. The effect will be better, if sodium butyrate releases at the back end of small intestine and large intestine.

The sodium butyrate is a short chain fatty acid with volatility, it can increase proliferation of the goblet cells in small intestine, improve morphology of epithelial cells, maintain integrality of small intestinal mucosa and small intestine gives play to normal barrier function. The sodium butyrate improves gastrointestinal function and increases production performance in back end of intestinal tract. Under unprotected condition, it was rapidly absorbed by front end of gastrointestinal tract because the sodium butyrate has the traits of free and volatility. If the sodium butyrate gradually release in the back end of small intestine and large intestine in vivo, the effect will be better.

   The retention rates of common and granule sodium butyrate were just 7.35% and 17.04% respectively after through carrier difference, mixing, granulating, stomach and digestive tract forepart, but the retention rates of coated sodium butyrate was 72.66% because of coated by fat and absorbed by high temperature expansion core material.

CONCLUSIONS

1. The loss rate of coated sodium butyrate obviously less than the common and granule sodium butyrate in the feed with different moisture.

2. The granulation process has enormous implications for different types of sodium butyrate, but compared with common and granule sodium butyrate, the loss rate of coated sodium butyrate is lower.

3. The coated sodium butyrate outer fat is insensitive to carrier and mixture material.

4. The retention rate of coated sodium butyrate is obviously higher than the common and granule sodium butyrate after passing through stomach of piglet and broiler and the forepart of the small intestine.

REFERENCE

[1] Pryde SE, Duncan SH, Hold GL, et al. The Microbiology of Butyrate Formation in the Human Colon [J]. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 2002, 217 (2) : 133~139.

[2]王继风,陈耀星,等.丁酸钠对断奶仔猪小肠黏膜形态结构的影响.中国兽医科技,2005,35(4):298—301.

[3]安东亚,王忠,呙于明,等.酵母β-1,3 /1,6-葡聚糖与丁酸钠合用对断奶仔猪生长性能和生理代谢的影响[J].中国畜牧杂志,2007,43(5):22~25.

[4] Kotunia A, Wolinski J, LaubitzD, et al. Effect of Sodium Butyrate on the Small Intestine Development in Neonatal Piglets Feed by Artificial Sow [J]. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology,2004, 55 (2) 59~68.

[5] Galfi P, Bokori J. Feeding Trial in Pigs with a Diet Containing Sodium N-butyrae[ J ]. Acta Vet Hung, 1990, 38 (2) : 3~17.