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Effect of Adding Rumen-Protected Choline on Milk Performance in Lactating Dairy Cows
Time10.9.2011  Website's Browsing Times 3515BLack
 

Xu Guozhong1  JIN Huaming2  MEI Yincai3  YE Yueying2  YE Hongwei3  BAO Yueyuan4  ZHENG Weifang4  GE Junping4  YE Junan1  LIU Jianxin1

(1. College of Animal Science, Zhejiang University, 310029 2. Hangzhou Jinjiang Dairy Farm Co., Ltd 3 Hangzhou Zhengxing Husbandry Co., Ltd 4 Hangzhou Milk Detection Station)

Abstract: Forty-four lactating dairy cows were used to investigate the effect of addition with rumen-protected choline (25g/d) on lactation performance in dairy cows. The experiments were conducted in two dairy farms (Jinjiang Farm and Zhengxing Farm), involving 22 lactating cows in each. The animals added with rumen-protected choline produced 0.92kg and 0.82kg more milk than that of the control group in Jinjiang Farm and Zhengxing Farm respectively. There is little difference in contents of milk fat and milk protein.

Key words: lactating dairy cows rumen-protected choline milk yield milk composition

 

       Choline that came from the feedstuffs or synthesized by ruminants can meet the lactation requirement of low-yield dairy cows. However, it is necessary to add choline in diet of high-yield dairy cows that under the intensive feeding. Choline chloride that was directly added in diet was degraded by ruminal microorganisms (Erdman et al., 1989). Therefore most researches at home and abroad were through feeding rumen-protected choline or through infusion in abomasums. Some studies reported that milk production can increase 3 kg when supplementing 10-90 g of rumen-protected choline chloride (Deuchler et al., 1998 Erdman et.al, 1991). This trail is going to adding rumen-protected choline chloride in diet of high-yield dairy cows and compares the differences of animals.

1  Materials and methods

       This trial was carried out between July 22th, 2002 and August 23th, 2002 at Jinjiang Farm and Zhengxing Farm. Forty-four healthy lactating dairy cows were selected and paired on the basis of similarity in parity, days in milk and milk production, and allocated into experimental group and control group randomly.

       The basic conditions of experimental animals were: cows of Jinjiang Farm were divided into 2 groups with 11 each, the average lactation periods of experimental group and control group were 168.2 and 169 d respectively, and the average daily milk productions before experiment were 23.240.86 and 23.450.97 kg respectively cows of Zhengxing Farm were divided into 2 groups with 11 each, and the average parity of the two groups was 1.4, the average lactation periods of experimental group and control group were 157.7 and 155.2 d respectively, and the average daily milk productions before experiment were 25.171.7 and 25.301.3 kg respectively.

       The diet compositions of Jingjiang cows were: corn silage 13 kg, alfalfa hay 2 kg, Chinese wildrye 2 kg, beer residue 12 kg, concentrate mixtures 9.5 kg. The diet compositions of Zhengxing cows were: corn silage 12 kg, alfalfa hay 4.5 kg, monosodium glutamate residue 6 kg, ryegrass silage 6.5 kg, concentrate mixtures 8.5 kg. Diet of experimental group was added 25 g/head*d of rumen-protected choline chloride and was fed to cows twice a day (a.m. and p.m.). The rumen-protected choline chloride was coated through microcapsule technology and provided by Hangzhou King Techina Co., Ltd. Milk for 3 times each day (morning, noon and evening) through piping mechanical milker. Cows were housed and free to water.

       Before and after the trial, determine the milk production, milk fat content and milk protein content for successive two days of each cow.

       Data was analyzed through One-way Analysis of Covariance.

2  Results and analysis

2.1  Effects on milk production of dairy cows

Table 1  Effects of supplemental rumen-protected choline chloride on milk production, milk protein content and milk fat content of dairy cows (Jinjiang)

Items

 

Experimental group

Control group

P-value

Milk production (kg)

Before trial

23.240.86

23.450.97

ns

 

After trial

22.910.8

22.201.4

ns

 

Changes

0.33

1.25

 

 

Comparative effect

0.92

 

 

 

Comparative benefit (RMB/d)

1.52

 

 

Milk protein content (%)

Before trial

2.910.06

2.910.05

ns

 

After trial

3.150.07

3.110.06

ns

 

Changes

0.24

0.20

 

 

Comparative effect

0.04

 

 

Milk fat content (%)

Before trial

3.040.14

3.270.20

ns

 

After trial

3.280.18

3.480.12

 

 

Changes

0.24

0.21

 

 

Comparative effect

0.03

 

 

Note: price of per kg milk was 2.3 RMB (market price in 2002) the cost of each cow of adding choline was 0.6 RMB/d.

       From table 1 we can see that at Jinjiang Farm, the average daily milk production of control group after trial had decreased by 1.25 kg compared with before trial, and that of experimental group had decreased by 0.33 kg. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups in decreasing extent, the latter was 0.92 kg less than the control.

Table 2  Effects of supplemental rumen-protected choline chloride on milk production, milk protein content and milk fat content of dairy cows (Zhengxing)

Items

 

Experimental group

Control group

P-value

Milk production (kg)

Before trial

25.171.7

25.301.3

 

 

After trial

23.131.7

22.441.2

ns

 

Changes

2.04

2.86

 

 

Comparative effect

0.8

 

 

 

Comparative benefit

1.29

 

 

Milk protein content (%)

Before trial

2.850.08

2.920.04

ns

 

After trial

3.10.1

3.160.07

ns

 

Changes

0.25

0.24

 

 

Comparative effect

0.01

 

 

Milk fat content (%)

Before trial

3.380.15

3.270.20

ns

 

After trial

3.370.2

3.480.12

 

 

Changes

0.01

0.17

 

 

Comparative effect

0.16

 

 

       From table 2 we can see that at Zhengxing Farm, the average daily milk production of control group after trial had decreased by 2.86 kg compared with before trial, and that of experimental group had decreased by 2.04 kg. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups in decreasing extent, the latter was 0.82 kg less than the control.

       It is reported that, at 4-42 weeks of lactation period, adding rumen-protected choline chloride each day in diet of high-yield dairy cows can increase milk production by 10% (Sharma et al., 1989). There was a good effect of adding choline chloride on improving milk production, while there was still a great distance from other studies. The reason might be due to the structures of diet (Erdmandeng, 1984), milking potential of dairy cows and the protection rate of rumen-protected choline chloride in rumen. In this study, experimental cows were in middle and late lactation period and the milk production was descending. However, the average daily milk productions were increased by 0.92 and 0.82 kg respectively compared with the control after adding rumen-protected choline chloride. This indicated that adding rumen-protected choline chloride can alleviate the decreasing extent of milk production. In south China, where summer was hot and humid, whether there is the anti-heat stress effect of adding rumen-protected choline chloride still needs further studies.

2.2  Effects on milk component of dairy cows

       The results showed that the effects of supplemental choline chloride on milk fat content and milk protein content were little and the contents of milk protein and fat were similar between the 2 groups. This is in accordance with other reports abroad (Erdmanet al., 1991Luciano Pinotti et al., 2001) (Table 1 and 2).

2.3  Economic efficiency

       The cost of Jingjiang Farm would increase 0.6 RMB/head*d after adding 25 g of rumen-protected choline chloride each day, while the output would increase 2.12 RMB/head*d, that is, after deducting the cost of rumen-protected choline chloride, the net profit would increase 1.52 RMB/head*d. Similarly, the net profit of Zhengxing Farm would increase 1.29 RMB/head*d. The economic efficiency was significant.

 

Reference

[1] Luciano Pinotti. Antonella Baldi & Vittoriw Dellorto. Choline for dairy cows. Feed International. 2001.8.20-24

[2] R. A. Erdman, B. K. Sharma. Effect of Dietary Rumen-protected Choline in Lactating Dairy Cows. J.Dairy Sci.1991,74:1641-1647.

[3] R. A. Erdman, Shaver R.D. & Vandersall J. II. Dairy Choline for Lactating Cow: Possible Effects on Milk Fat Synthesis. J. Dairy Sci. 1984, 67:410-415.

[4] Sharma B K, Erhnan R A. Abomasal infusion of chline and methionine with or without 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol for lactating dairy cows. J.Dairy Sci. 1988, 71:2406-2411.

[5] Deuchler, Kerri N., Liliana S. Piperova Milk choline secretion as an indirect indicator of postruminal choline supply. J. Dairy Sci, 1998, 81:238-242

[6] Sharma B. K. Erdman R.A. Effects of dietary and abomasally infused choline on milk production responses of lactating dairy cows.